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Sani-Sidi and Volunteerism in Disaster Management

BY ABUBAKAR JIMOH

In the last two years, many stakeholders both within and outside Nigeria would have noticed the miraculous changes in the sphere of disaster management in the country which could be attributed to the tireless and dedicated efforts of the Director General National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), Alhaji Muhammad Sani Sidi who was appointed in September 2010.

It is indisputable fact that Sani Sidi has turned around the approaches to disaster management in the country using strategic values that have helped to save thousands of lives and billions of naira worth of property; as well as sustaining and improving the relationship with stakeholders, especially specialized volunteers on disaster management in the country.

As one of the beneficiaries of capacity building programmes of NEMA during my national youth service programme, I noticed the deployment of latest technology to advance the cause of disaster management in Nigeria. The last innovation is the introduction of the toll free number (0800CALLNEMA) in the case of an emergency where the general public could call free.

Most of the activities of the agency are undertaken under collaborative efforts with other response agencies and volunteers who are also trained to provide supports whenever required. The volunteer groups include those for top level officers in the public and private sectors known as Executive Volunteers, The Grassroots Volunteers at community level and Youth Volunteers. The successes of the volunteers are noticeable in public awareness campaigns and response to emergencies.

Realizing that quality education and awareness campaigns are major pillars towards disaster risk reduction, NEMA under Sani-Sidi has expended more resources in training and retraining of staff and stakeholders through regional seminars, conferences and simulations exercises. There is also tremendous public awareness on disaster management through effective media relations and strategic relations with relevant response agencies.

The improvement in early warning alert by NEMA has assisted in great measures in reducing risk from excessive rainfall that have resulted to massive flooding this year alone. Though lives and property have been lost, those that had adhered to the early alert from the agency were saved.

While preventive strategies are antidotes to avoid occurrence, timely response to disaster occurrences are now the hallmark of NEMA going by their response to bomb explosion sites, collapsed buildings, flooded communities among others. While NEMA rescue officers search for victims, relief and rehabilitation teams provide succour to the affected communities.

NEMA’s success story in the last two years is not limited to managing challenges in Nigeria but also with the international communities. The agency has rendered various types of assistances and supports to mostly African countries. For instance relief materials were provided to victims of explosion in Congo Brazzaville, while The Gambia benefitted from deployment of skilled NEMA emergency officers to support in setting up similar agency in that country. In the same vein, stranded Nigerians during the political crises in Arab countries were successfully evacuated and united with their families in Nigeria. Egypt, Tunisia and Libya were cases in point.

It is pertinent to note that while NEMA offices are in only six states representing each geopolitical zone of the Federation, Sani-Sidi finds it necessary to improve the capacities of the stakeholders, especially the volunteer groups. The National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) is a beneficiary of the gesture. The NEMA-NYSC Emergency Youths Vanguard (EYV) has received financial and moral supports for their programmes and projects.

For instance, such assistance helped this writer to realise some projects including pamphlets, Zebra crossing, school quiz, relief donations and advocacy visitations during the NYSC days.

To the corps members who contribute immensely towards disaster risk reduction campaigns and projects, the NEMA DG single headedly provided scholarships to them to pursue Masters Degree programmes on Disaster Management in any of the six Nigerian universities where the programme are offered.

Many stakeholders’ initiatives have been developed and sustained from the NEMA-EYV collaboration. A concrete example of these is Youths Against Disaster Initiative (YADI) which is an opportunity for young Nigerians to be advocates and champions of disaster risk reduction in their communities. The initiative was influenced by encouragement of Sani-Sidi, who insists “Disaster Management is everyone’s business.”

YADI was created through the collaborative efforts of the youths who have been critically involved in sensitization campaign against disaster during their service year at the realm of NYSC. The Initiative majorly aims to: create a framework for sensitizing and enlightening the youths on public safety, security consciousness and disaster risks management across the country; educate and empower youths on public safety, disaster risk reduction, especially in preparing, responding and mitigating natural and man-made disasters through effective collaboration with stakeholders.

In view of the above, it is therefore not surprising that NEMA under Muhamad Sani-Sidi has continued to receive accolades for the way and manner it manages disaster situations in the country. For instance in August 2012, while Governor David Jang of Plateau State commended the agency for timely response to victims of disasters in the state, the representative of the United Nations’ Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance, Mr. Ayo Ajayi also acknowledged NEMA’s efficient response and approach to disasters and humanitarian situations in the country. And just recently at World Ministerial Conference on Disaster Reduction in Sendai, Japan, the Head of Secretariat of United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), Ms. Margareta Wahlstrom commended NEMA for its programmes on education and public awareness towards Disaster Risk Reduction, DRR in Nigeria.

It is expected that Muhammad Sani-Sidi would use the next half of his tenure to sustain, if not improve on what have so far been accomplished in the areas of disaster management in the country.

Abubakar Jimoh is the National Coordinator, Youths Against Disaster Initiative (YADI), Abuja.
abujimoh01@yahoo.com

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Filed under: Disaster Management, , , , ,

Namadi Sambo: The Force Behind Disaster Management in Nigeria

By Abubakar Jimoh

“There are countless ways of attaining greatness, but any road to reaching one’s maximum potential must be built on a bedrock of respect for the individual, a commitment to excellence, and a rejection of mediocrity.” So says a former American Baseball Player, Buck Rodgers.

The above quote aptly captures the famous personality, humble politician, amiable humanitarian, and accomplished Architect, the Nigeria’s Vice President and Chairman Governing Council of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), Alhaji Muhammad Namadi Sambo.

In the last two years many achievement have been noticed in the area of disaster management in the country. While it is obvious that the credit over some of the accomplishments in tackling emergency and disaster situation should go to the management and staff of the agency, only few realize that successes of some of those bodies come through the unseen hands of their boards or governing councils as the case may be.

Being a participant and contributor to public awareness campaigns on disaster risk reduction in the country, I have seen how volunteers, response agencies and staff of NEMA have been collaborating in the last few years in meeting the mandates of the agency.

As we see and read from the media the timely intervention efforts, relief distributions, evacuation exercises at odd times and strange environments, and similarly the regular capacity building exercise, the question is how are those task accomplished? The answer could not be far-fetched. While Alhaji Muhammad Sani-Sidi is the Director General of NEMA, the Vice President Muhammad Namadi Sambo is actually the Chairman of the agency’s council who on behalf of President Goodluck Jonathan always provides the necessary moral and logistic supports to NEMA.

As the NEMA’s Chairman of Governing Council, Sambo is credited to the massive sensitization campaign on disaster preparedness and response across the six-geopolitical zones through the supports given to the management of NEMA. His office is also responsible for approval of implementation of DRR programmes and policies in the country, especially in the area of development of sustainable frameworks on disaster management; institutionalization of Early Warning mechanism and establishment of Distress Calls Centres.

As the Chairman of the council and in reference to his boss, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan, Sambo ensures that presidential directives are adhered to wit immediacy when it concerned human lives and property. The Presidency through his office closely monitor the evacuation of Nigerian from trouble countries , like the rapid evacuation of thousands of stranded Nigerians from Egypt, Tunisia and Libya during the Arab spring before the situation became worst in those countries.

In the same realm, he assured Nigerians that federal government would do everything possible to map the nation’s geographical landscape to address disaster issues in the country; and to achieve this objective, he extended NEMA’s collaborative strategy with stakeholders to include office of Surveyor-General of the Federation.
While we continue to commend NEMA through the management led by Sani-Sidi, we must also appreciate and acknowledge leadership dynamism of Vice President and Chairman of the council who encourages and approves notable accomplishment in disaster management in the country.

We are living witnesses to the fact that the government has encouraged and supported the participation of local emergency volunteers including youth corps members and students into a specilised corps on on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR).

Apart from the success story of prompt evacuation of Nigerians from troubled nations, in response to the various disasters at international level, the government also supports other needy countries. For instance the government provides relief materials to victims of ammunition deports explosion in Brazzaville, and the deployment of NEMA’s officers to Gambia for technical support for the take-off of its National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA) in that country.

Sambo was elected Executive Governor of Kaduna State in 2007. He has been seen as a man of few words, but full of actions. In spite of his rather modest posture, Sambo has an intimidating records of private and public services. Arc. Mohammed Namadi sambo was born on the 2nd of august, 1952 in Zaria, Kaduna state. He started his educational career between the year 1959 at Baptist primary school Kakuri, Kaduna and Kobi Primary School in Bauchi. He attended government secondary school now Alhuda-huda college in Zaria between 1967 and 1971.

A graduate of Architecture from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, he did his national youth service corps at the Oyo State Ministry of Works. At the age of 34, he was appointed Kaduna state Commissioner for Agriculture in 1986, and credited with transformation of the state into a major food basket in the country and later on as the state’s Commissioner for Works, Transport and Housing till 1990.

Abubakar Jimoh is the National Coordinator, Youths Against Disasters Initiative (YADI), Abuja.
abujimoh01@yahoo.com

Filed under: Disaster Management, , ,

Understanding Sanusi Lamido on New Naira Notes

ABUBAKAR JIMOH

Recently, the Governor of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Mallam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi announced the introduction of a new currency series under which the existing denominations of N50, N100, N200, N500 and the N1, 000 notes will be redesigned with added security features while the lowest denominations of N5, N10 and N20 are to be coined. Meanwhile a new denomination of N5000 would also be introduced.

Though some of the policies of the Mallam Sanusi as Governor of CBN could be considered aggressive, it is nevertheless necessary to look at them neither from political nor emotional sentiments but from their economic benefits.

MallamSanusi has always claimed that he pursues sound macroeconomic policies which include fiscal prudence supported by appropriate monetary policy to contain inflation at single digit. This can be attained through avoidance of wasteful spending in the economy. Consequently, the introduction of N5000 in line with cashless policy of the government will not only help to reduce the expenditure on printing of note, but also aid portability.

In the analyse of the Chief Executive Officer, Economic Associate and a lecturer with Lagos Business School, Dr. Ayodele Teriba the introduction of N5000 note and conversion of N5, N10, N20 notes to coins was a right step in a right direction; as it would place our currency in right place to compete with other strong currencies across the globe.

It could be recalled that in 1959, the United Kingdom introduced the first coins to Nigeria denomination of 1 Shilling, 2 Shillings, 1 Pence, 1 and half Pence, 3 Pence, Six Pence which later withdrawn after the introduction of Naira and Kobo in 1973. The introduction of multiple naira notes into the national monetary affair has called for unpleasant inflation and devaluation of coins dominations of Nigeria currency. Meanwhile the UK still strongholds the value of its coins currency.

Some economists have argued that the new currencies would not trigger inflation, as the CBN has always exercised firm finger on modulation to ensure that the currency is at par with the economic index. They also claimed that the measure according to them can bring the naira at par with the dollar.

Maintaining naira at par with dollar will demand tight monetary policies known as contractionary monetary policy which involves removing money and credit from an economy’s money supply. Also, the higher denomination would not necessary bring about inflationary situation in the economy, as many advanced countries such as Singapore, Germany and Japan, highest denominations are 10,000 SGD, 500Euro and Yen 10,000, respectively. These denominations have relatively high dollar equivalent with inflation rates as low at 2.8, 1.1 and -0.7, respectively in 2010.

Certainly, the above policy actions taken by the CBN were within the statutory mandate of the Bank, and in the overall interest of the Nigerian Economy. It is not doubt that the Bank’s monetary policy decisions would stabilize and strengthen financial system and support the growth of the Nigerian economy.

Apart from this, the CBN has demonstrated its readiness to maintain a stable exchange rate and close monitoring of inflation in the country to avoid any future unbearable consequences. This is a strategic measure against the futuristic inflationary trends brothering the minds of Nigerians.

There are many reasons for Nigerians to support the ongoing policies of the CBN on new currency; as the monetary policies so far introduced by MallamSanusi have helped to create a reasonable control over the commercial banks and ensures an elastic currency, which enforces desired predictable behaviour by banks.

The bank under Sanusi has ensured full compliance with the established and approved policies and procedures that allow the banks to create credit in order to allocate it to socially desirable ends. Through this CBN has installed the lost public confidence in the financial institutions; and sanitized the banking sector from unethical practices.

Abubakar Jimoh is the National Coordinator, Youths Against Disasters Initiative (YADI), Abuja.
abujimoh01@yahoo.com

Filed under: Economy, , , , ,

Namadi Sambo: The Force Behind Disaster Management in Nigeria

By Abubakar Jimoh

“There are countless ways of attaining greatness, but any road to reaching one’s maximum potential must be built on a bedrock of respect for the individual, a commitment to excellence, and a rejection of mediocrity.” So says a former American Baseball Player, Buck Rodgers.
The above quote aptly captures the famous personality, humble politician, amiable humanitarian, and accomplished Architect, the Nigeria’s Vice President and Chairman Governing Council of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), Alhaji Muhammad Namadi Sambo.

In the last two years many achievement have been noticed in the area of disaster management in the country. While it is obvious that the credit over some of the accomplishments in tackling emergency and disaster situation should go to the management and staff of the agency, only few realize that successes of some of those bodies come through the unseen hands of their boards or governing councils as the case may be.

Being a participant and contributor to public awareness campaigns on disaster risk reduction in the country, I have seen how volunteers, response agencies and staff of NEMA have been collaborating in the last few years in meeting the mandates of the agency.

As we see and read from the media the timely intervention efforts, relief distributions, evacuation exercises at odd times and strange environments, and similarly the regular capacity building exercise, the question is how are those task accomplished? The answer could not be far-fetched. While Alhaji Muhammad Sani-Sidi is the Director General of NEMA, the Vice President Muhammad Namadi Sambo is actually the Chairman of the agency’s council who on behalf of President Goodluck Jonathan always provides the necessary moral and logistic supports to NEMA.

As the NEMA’s Chairman of Governing Council, Sambo is credited to the massive sensitization campaign on disaster preparedness and response across the six-geopolitical zones through the supports given to the management of NEMA. His office is also responsible for approval of implementation of DRR programmes and policies in the country, especially in the area of development of sustainable frameworks on disaster management; institutionalization of Early Warning mechanism and establishment of Distress Calls Centres.

As the Chairman of the council and in reference to his boss, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan, Sambo ensures that presidential directives are adhered to wit immediacy when it concerned human lives and property. The Presidency through his office closely monitor the evacuation of Nigerian from trouble countries , like the rapid evacuation of thousands of stranded Nigerians from Egypt, Tunisia and Libya during the Arab spring before the situation became worst in those countries.

In the same realm, he assured Nigerians that federal government would do everything possible to map the nation’s geographical landscape to address disaster issues in the country; and to achieve this objective, he extended NEMA’s collaborative strategy with stakeholders to include office of Surveyor-General of the Federation.

While we continue to commend NEMA through the management led by Sani-Sidi, we must also appreciate and acknowledge leadership dynamism of Vice President and Chairman of the council who encourages and approves notable accomplishment in disaster management in the country.

We are living witnesses to the fact that the government has encouraged and supported the participation of local emergency volunteers including youth corps members and students into a specilised corps on on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR).

Apart from the success story of prompt evacuation of Nigerians from troubled nations, in response to the various disasters at international level, the government also supports other needy countries. For instance the government provides relief materials to victims of ammunition deports explosion in Brazzaville, and the deployment of NEMA’s officers to Gambia for technical support for the take-off of its National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA) in that country.

Sambo was elected Executive Governor of Kaduna State in 2007. He has been seen as a man of few words, but full of actions. In spite of his rather modest posture, Sambo has an intimidating records of private and public services. Arc. Mohammed Namadi sambo was born on the 2nd of august, 1952 in Zaria, Kaduna state. He started his educational career between the year 1959 at Baptist primary school Kakuri, Kaduna and Kobi Primary School in Bauchi. He attended government secondary school now Alhuda-huda college in Zaria between 1967 and 1971.

A graduate of Architecture from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, he did his national youth service corps at the Oyo State Ministry of Works. At the age of 34, he was appointed Kaduna state Commissioner for Agriculture in 1986, and credited with transformation of the state into a major food basket in the country and later on as the state’s Commissioner for Works, Transport and Housing till 1990.

Abubakar Jimoh is the National Coordinator, Youths Against Disasters Initiative (YADI), Abuja.
abujimoh01@yahoo.com

Filed under: Disaster Management, , , ,

That Rise in Electricity Tariffs

BY: ABUBAKAR JIMOH
Barely six months after the 49.2% hike in fuel prices from N67 per litre to N97 per litre, the Nigeria Electricity Regulatory Council (NERC) announces the introduction of higher electricity tariff with the hope to regulate electricity supply and accelerate income for the government not minding the national socio-economic hardship.

The newly imposed tariff which takes effect from June 1, 2012 has been received with mixed feelings by consumers and consumer advocacy groups across the country, some see such policy as aggressive and a move to further impoverish the indigent in the society, while others view it as a required strategy towards sustainable growth and development of Nigeria.
Under the new tariff, consumers have been classified into two basic categories, these are electricity consumers in the residential two (R2) category (residential customers with single-phase meters), where most consumers belong, will pay between N10.85 and N14.60 per Kilowatt hour as against the current rate of N7.30 per Kilowatt. It is noteworthy that per kilowatt hour is estimated to be the amount of the power consumed by an individual or organization.

Meanwhile in the year 2011, electricity tariff was reported to have been silently increased from N4.20K to N7.00 with zero significant improvement in power generation and distribution. The policy is said to have no consideration for the purchasing power of Nigerians that are adversely affected by the ever increasing inflation in the country plus the removal of oil subsidies which has already exhausted the N18,000 minimum wage increased in the year 2011.

One could imagine the present level of Nigerian standard of living and the position of its power supply with overly retrogressive development. For instance, while the United Nations Human Development Index (2007) ranks Nigeria 158 out of 177 countries which is a significant decrease in its human development rank of 151 in 2004, the World Bank Development Indicators (2000) have placed Nigeria within the 20 poorest countries of the world.

Besides, a report from United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) has shown that majority of Nigerians are poor with 71 percent of the population living on less than $1 a day. Nigeria’s irregular power supply has over the years back pedaled its economic development. For instance many businesses have witnessed collapse; about 90% of textile industries previously operating in the country have been dilapidated, while others like Nigeria Dunlop Ltd have relocated to other countries.
We should remember that stable power supply largely determines the presence and development of manufacturing sector in any developed economy. Regular power supply marks the basis for the increasing level of intensive capital production among the G8 economies such as West Germany, France, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States, Russia and Canada.

This unpleasant development has not only discouraged investors at both local and international levels, but also driven away the existing manufacturing industries. Nigeria electricity generation which presently stands at 3800 Mega Watts cannot sustain all the nation’s energy needs. Sadly, the Nigeria Energy Commission (NEC) reported that the manufacturing sector alone will consume about 2000 Mega Watts of electricity to keep the factories in the country running at installed capacity. The country remains the worst hit by the dwindling power supply which has led to the near total collapse of the entire industrial sector. Nigeria needs a critical reform in power sector to attain economic growth and development.

It has been argued that the growth of any nation is critically dependent on the sufficiency of its electricity supply. However, the development of the various sectors of the economy, such as industry, agriculture, health, education, tourism, etc, depends heavily on reliable, adequate and economically priced power. Reliable power supply will stimulate industrial and agricultural development, transportation and communication, create employment, education and functional health care facilities.

The increase in tariff if not accompanied with increase in power generation and distribution will ultimately force the existing industries that spend almost 50% of their incomes on fueling generators out of business and scare away prospective investors. The irregular power supply has limited income generating opportunities of the industrial sector and resulted in increased cost of doing business. In spite of the abundant hydro resources and natural gas reserves in the country which has assumed prominence for fueling electricity generation globally, the state of electricity supply continues to pose major policy challenge to successive governments.

South Africa with a population of about 44 million has electric generating capacity of 30,000 Megawatts which translates to an annual per capita consumption of electricity of 4500 kWh after its successful collaboration with an Independent Power Producers, ESKOM in the year 2008; while Nigeria’s annual per capita consumption of electricity is estimated at between about 100 kWh and 135 kWh.

In Nigeria, power utilities are plagued by poor governance, weak management capacity, lack of technical skills, poor revenue collection, economic mismanagement, high technical losses and theft, resulting in inefficient operations and undermining financial viability.

While the country has attempted some degree of sector reform such as the setting up the Electric Power Implementation Committee (EPIC), formulation of the National Electric Power Policy (2001), drafting and enactment of the Electric Power Sector Reform Act (2005), transformation of NEPA into Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), establishment of the Nigeria Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC) and the Rural Electrification Agency (REA); nevertheless, steady power supply remains elusive.

Abubakar Jimoh is a member of NYSC at RMAFC, Abuja.
abujimoh01@yahoo.com

Filed under: Economy, , ,

REVIVING MANUFACTURING SECTOR IN NIGERIA

BY: JIMOH ABUBAKAR
Nigeria as a giant of Africa has for long been regarded as a nation blessed with abundant human and material resources; however, the underutilization of these potentials has amplified a widespread poverty, low standard of living at individual level and rising unemployment in the country as a result of incessant mono-economic practice and drastic neglect of other sectors of the economy such as agriculture, tourism, mining and the manufacturing industry. In spite of the country’s vast oil wealth, a recent report from United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) has shown that majority of Nigerians are poor with 71 per cent of the population living on less than one dollar a day.

The United Nations Human Development Index (2007) also ranks Nigeria 158 out of 177 countries which is a significant decrease in its human development rank of 151 in 2004; and World Bank Development Indicators (2000) have placed Nigeria within the 20 poorest countries of the world. The issue of poverty can be easily traced to mono-economic practice and underutilization of the nation’s endowed resources, especially in manufacturing sector which could have opened up windows of opportunity in job creation and economic development.

So far, it has been argued that the fastest trend through which a nation can achieve sustainable economic growth and development is neither by the level of its endowed material resources, nor that of its vast human resources, but technological innovation, enterprise development and industrial capacity. For instance, despite its poor natural resources, and the hurdles it faced from 1920s chronic inflation, Germany has effectively exploited the manufacturing sector and rose up to become the largest economy in Europe and the fourth largest in the world.

This was achieved after the Europe recovery program instituted in the 1950s by the America’s foremost World War II military leader, George Marshall to rebuild the war-shattered Europe. The ideology largely concentrated on industrial revolution which gave birth to the four-year Marshall economic plan adopted by both French and German governments. Consequently, these nations have witnessed concrete development in their industrial investments, infrastructural development and significant level of employment generation. Just as America regained its strength and became the world industrial giant through aggressive industrial revolution following the cold war that led to the breakup of former Soviet Union in the 1990s.

In the modern world, manufacturing sector is regarded as a basis through which a nation’s economic efficiency is determined, measured, compared, classified and ranked. However, after the discovery of crude oil in Nigeria in the late 1950s, the nation has shifted from its preeminent developing industrial production base and placed heavy weight on crude oil production; not only has this jeopardized its economic economics activities, but also aggravated the nation’s level of unemployment.

Nevertheless, the well-known developed economies have over the years adopted some initial tactical and favourable measures in pursuit of their economic growth and development through massive diversification of their economic resources into manufacturing sector to enhance their Gross Domestic Production (GDP) capacity. These measures have paved way not only for employment opportunities, but also raising standard of living at individual level that a developing world like Nigeria can exploit to attain a balanced economic growth and development.

Creating an enabling environment is an imperative for Nigeria to attract and sustain both local and foreign investors for industrial and commercial activities in the country. This refers to effective national policies, laws, physical infrastructure (road, electricity, water, healthcare, etc.) and other infrastructure (access to education, banks etc.) that need to be put in place for people to be able to use Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) for economic, commercial and social advantages. For instance, the United Arab Emirate (UAE) has been able to put in place the industrial enabling environment to pull both local and foreign investors through whom it has recorded a remarkable development in its economic activities. Following this trend, Dubai became the largest economy in UAE after Abu Dhabi.

Of course, it is not in doubt that Nigeria is identified among other African nations with vast material and human resources that could help to drive series of manufacturing industries. However, the country still lags behind. For instance, Canada majors in wood production and contributes 10% to the global forestry product for it has recorded more than 75% (23.5 million hectare) landscape for forest production. Consequently, the country has put in place effective Forest Protection Laws backing forest harvest in the country. Through forest production, Canada has been able to save about 3 million jobs in the last 5 years. Consider in this case, the death of Jebba Paper Mill which would have paved way for employment opportunities in Nigeria.

Stable power supply is another factor which largely determines the presence and development of manufacturing sector in any developed economy. Regular power supply has marked the basis for the increasing level of intensive capital production among the G8 economies such as West Germany, France, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States, Russia and Canada. Ghana has followed same trend and ends up attracting most of foreign Manufacturers such as Nigeria Dunlop Ltd which vacated Nigeria due to irregular power supply. Also, about 90% of the Textile Industries previously operating in the country have relocated to other countries in search of regular power supply. This has caused the nation millions of job opportunities and capital flight.

This wholesome development has not only discouraged investors at both local and international levels, but also driven away the existing manufacturing industries. Nigeria electricity generation which presently stands at 3, 800 Mega Watts cannot sustain all the nation’s energy needs. Recently, the Nigeria Energy Commission (NEC) reported that the manufacturing sector alone will consume about 2000 Mega Watts of electricity to keep the factories in the country running at installed capacity. The country remains the worst hit by the dwindling power supply which has led to the near total collapse of the entire industrial sector. Nigeria needs a critical reform in power sector to attain economic growth and development.

International Sustainable Energy Watch (2006) has indicated a glorified industrial and agricultural development from Iran whose 94.4% electricity generation capacity results to rapid increase at 7.4% much higher than the population and economic growth rate meaning a substantial improvement in industrial and agriculture utilization as well as per capital consumption of electricity. The collaborated effort of the South Africa Department of Minerals and Energy, and an Independent Power Producers, Eskom towards implementation of 2008 South Africa Response to National Electricity Shortage Policy has generated a fast-tracking electricity projects which has reinforced the nation’s industrial sector.

Some developed economies have focused on security of lives and property in pursuit of sustainable growth and development. Just as United Kingdom has hitherto put in place effective security scheme and constant review of its National Security Strategy that draws both local and foreign capitals, Nigeria can follow same trend and put in place workable security strategy that will secure the investors’ lives and property in the country.

Nigeria has demonstrated a lukewarm attitude towards Research and Development sector despite a number of R & D institutes including universities and polytechnics in the country. However, these institutions are poorly funded; as it is evident that the nation’s annual estimation provides little percentage for the R & D sector of the economy. Science and technology research has been found to be important since it plays an integral role in the creation of new knowledge and skills as well as driving the world economy. Notable advanced nations like United States places more emphasis on R & D as it allocated about 64.8% to R & D in 2010 fiscal year.

The inability to translate research discoveries into reality is another menace backpedalling and discouraging manufacturing research and development in Nigeria. The sector, if skillfully manned will lay a solid foundation for a fresh agro-chemical development that will be a critical factor in agro-economic expansion and indirectly answered industrial needs for raw materials. For instance, the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) (2009) opined that development of competitive agro-industries is crucial for creating employment and generating income opportunities, as well as enhancing the quality of and demand for farm products. Also, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (2011) has pointed out that China records economic boom through significant market restructuring and reviving economic environment, production and consumption volume of agro-products have risen.

Today, the crops developed during the Green Revolution Technologies were high yield varieties; as they were domesticated plants bred specifically to respond to fertilizers and produce and increase amount of grain per acre planted. In view of this, Briney (2010) states “the use of Green Revolution Technologies exponentially increased the amount of food production world wide”. Nigeria can as well lay a considerable emphasis on agricultural research and extension services such as provision of agro-technological training facilities for research institutions and scholarships for agro-technological students in higher institutions.

Nigeria needs a considerable review of its tax policies also which must be done to catalyse investment and commercial activities from both local and international directions as well as discouraging importation of goods, especially the basic needs for which the country has production capacity. The Nigerian Company Income Tax Act (CITA) of 1961 amended in the year 2007 mandates a deduction of 30% tax rate on a Company annual income for the assessment year. Consider the comatose level of infrastructural facilities in the country; this percentage would become a burden on some industries, as they might lack the capacity to dutifully observe their tax obligation at regular period. For instance, Russia is identified among the G8 economies for it has placed an enabling environment and favourable Industrial Tax rates between 20% and 24% on manufacturing sector.

Furthermore, tax can be used as a weapon to discourage the ongoing massive level of importation in the economy. For instance, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) reported that Nigeria has spent N155bn on rice importation in 2010. This awful phenomenon has called for a question as why should Nigeria be a major importer of rice as it is blessed with good climate and resources to produce the commodity locally? The consistent massive importation has indirectly reduced the nation’s Foreign Reserve from $46 billion to $33 billion in 2009 and 2010 respectively.

There is a compelling need for the review and full implementation of the Nigerian Industrial Policy of 1977 which aimed at encouraging and advancing the interest of Nigerians and enhancing their full participation in the control and management of business activities in the country; as various forms of abuses and shortcomings in the implementation of this Policy have prevented the full realisation of its noble objectives. It has been reported that the foreigners still connive with Nigerians to fake business ownership in the country. Consequently, Nigerians have little control over industrial enterprises.

Nigeria can learn from the French government which has put in place favourable Industrial Policy that has over the years helped to protect its citizens participation in the national enterprises development towards the international competitive advantage. Following this trend, the country has attained the fifth position among the world largest and wealthiest economies, and second largest economy in Europe.

Nigeria consists of 36 states with blessed vast mineral resources such as Coal, Tin Ore, Glass sand, Quartz in Cross River; Zinc Ore, Lime stone, Salt in Ebonyi; Iron Ore, Gemstone, Limenite in Bauchi; Petroleum, Copper, Gold, Marble in Edo; Silica sand, Mica, gypsum in Ogun; among others. In fact, Nigeria has proven deposit of over 1.5 billion tons of Coal, but this has yielded no concrete development for the country as they are transformed only by means of modern technology which the country presently cannot provide.

Another way Nigeria can exert a pull on manufacturing sector with a considerable employment opportunities is recycling production. It has been argued that each household produces around one ton of rubbish every year, which equates to around 29.1 million tons for the United Kingdom each year. Waste materials have for long posed series of environmental challenges to Nigeria. United Kingdom has seen waste management as an opportunity for recycling activities and employment generation. Nigeria can take advantage of its environmental conditions and develop a workable recycling system to enhance capacity building. This will automatically resolve both environmental pollution and unemployment in the country.

Jimoh, Abubakar
NYSC Member writes from
Revenue Mobilisation Allocation & Fiscal Commission (RMAFC)
abujimoh01@yahoo.com

Filed under: Economy, Uncategorized

Ensuring New Fiscal Equity in Tax Administration

BY: ABUBAKAR JIMOH
The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789 once said “common contribution is essential for the maintenance of the public forces and for the cost of administration. This should be equitably distributed among all the citizens in proportion to their means”.

The Chairman of the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Mrs Ifueko Omoigui recently announced new tax regime which is a product of the Personal Income Tax (Amendment) Act, and came into effect on June 14, last year. The policy compels the president and his vice as well as governors and their deputies to pay tax on their earnings; as this will help to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor in the country.

The newly introduced tax regime is a progressive tax system that has been described as a type of income tax system in which persons or corporations are assessed at a greater percentage of their income according to the theoretical ability to pay. In this case, people with a higher disposable income suffer larger percentage of their income in taxes than those with low or moderate earning power in the country.

Hitherto, progressive tax has been reported to appeal to the average person’s sense of fairness, equity and equality, it also has been the basic drivers for countries of the world that has adopted the system. For instance, in China the tax brackets under the progressive tax system range from 5% for the poorest citizens to 45% for the country’s elite; from 5% to 40% in Japan; from 0% to 45% in Australia; between 19.5% and 49% in New Zealand; while in the United Kingdom, progressive taxes range from 20% to 40% of a person’s taxable income.

Under Nigeria’s new income tax rate, a first earning of N300, 000 will attract 7% tax, while subsequent income of the same amount will be taxed at 11%. Those who earn N500, 000 would be made to pay 15% of the income as tax in the first instance, while 19% would be charged on subsequent earnings of the same amount; earnings of N1.6m will attract 21% tax, while income above N3.2m will attract a tax of 24%.

The fresh rates will mark a new era of equality in Nigeria tax administration as it reflects largely on take home pay of those political office holders previously excluded from tax obligation. That is, the President earning N1.171million, Vice President earning N1.010million, Minister earning over N650 thousands, Senate President earning over N724 thousands, Deputy Senate President earning over N673 thousands, Senator earning over N1m, Speaker earning over N412 thousands, Deputy Speaker earning over N381, Members of House of Representatives earning over 792 thousands, State Governor, Local Government Chairman earning over N295 thousands naira are liable to pay higher aggregate as tax than common civil servant whose monthly minimum pay is N18, 000.

The system will not only control individual spending behaviour, but also guarantee their protection during recession since they will fall into lower income bracket when their income drops.

The ongoing emphasis on taxation imposed at all levels will mark a new outlook for National Income diversification and discourage mono-economic practice in the country. For instance, taxes provide the most important revenue source for the Government of the People’s Republic of China. As the most important source of fiscal revenue, tax is a key economic player of macro-economic regulation, and greatly affects China’s economic and social development.

Just as the progressive tax is used in advanced economies, Nigeria can use its new tax regime as a tool for economic stimulation and development. The United States government for example, has a number of tools available to influence the economy and secure the well being of its citizens. Fiscal policy allows the government to utilize spending and tax revenue on projects the government chooses to support.

These actions of the government to achieve economic goals are enacted through legislation which has marked the initial action taken by the FIRS while proposing the new tax system. Also, the US government has used economic stimulus legislation to support those affected by the events of September 11, 2001, and more recently, to support the financial and automotive industries; which Nigeria can exploit towards the resuscitation of its socio-economic capacity.

In low economy situation, the government can take positive action through economic stimulus bills. These bills or legislation specify the allocation of funds to specific areas of need. These areas could be general in scope and their recovery beneficial to the majority of the population. They could also be targeted or specific, as in natural disaster relief without seeking for much external grants or debts.

Progressive taxation is often considered as an overall system since tax codes have many interdependent variables. For example, progressive income tax in Australia is the most important revenue stream within the Australian taxation system. It is levied upon three sources of income; individual taxpayers, business income and capital gains. These account for 66% of federal government revenue and 57% of total revenue across the three tiers of government.

Besides, the new development will help to curb illegal manipulations surrounding the system to as far as grassroots level; this is because the local government area councils power regarding tax collection has been ceded to the state government. This will primarily enhance central co-ordination, reduce cost of tax administration collection and eliminate multiple tax burdens on the people.

However, for the new tax regime to achieve its main objectives, the Joint Tax Board must ensure competence, transparency, fairness and justice in the collection and administration of tax in the states. This can be achieved by giving administrative powers to tax authorities in the States with the provision of statutory qualifications for appointment as chairman and members of state Boards of Internal Revenue and provisions of basis for funding through the retention of a percentage of tax collected.

Abubakar Jimoh
abujimohoh01@yahoo.com

Filed under: Economy, , ,

Ensuring New Fiscal Equity in Tax Administration

ABUBAKAR JIMOH

The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789 once said “common contribution is essential for the maintenance of the public forces and for the cost of administration. This should be equitably distributed among all the citizens in proportion to their means”.

The Chairman of the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Mrs Ifueko Omoigui recently announced new tax regime which is a product of the Personal Income Tax (Amendment) Act, and came into effect on June 14, last year. The policy compels the president and his vice as well as governors and their deputies to pay tax on their earnings; as this will help to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor in the country.

The newly introduced tax regime is a progressive tax system that has been described as a type of income tax system in which persons or corporations are assessed at a greater percentage of their income according to the theoretical ability to pay. In this case, people with a higher disposable income suffer larger percentage of their income in taxes than those with low or moderate earning power in the country.

Hitherto, progressive tax has been reported to appeal to the average person’s sense of fairness, equity and equality, it also has been the basic drivers for countries of the world that has adopted the system. For instance, in China the tax brackets under the progressive tax system range from 5% for the poorest citizens to 45% for the country’s elite; from 5% to 40% in Japan; from 0% to 45% in Australia; between 19.5% and 49% in New Zealand; while in the United Kingdom, progressive taxes range from 20% to 40% of a person’s taxable income.

Under Nigeria’s new income tax rate, a first earning of N300, 000 will attract 7% tax, while subsequent income of the same amount will be taxed at 11%. Those who earn N500, 000 would be made to pay 15% of the income as tax in the first instance, while 19% would be charged on subsequent earnings of the same amount; earnings of N1.6m will attract 21% tax, while income above N3.2m will attract a tax of 24%.

The fresh rates will mark a new era of equality in Nigeria tax administration as it reflects largely on take home pay of those political office holders previously excluded from tax obligation. That is, the President earning N1.171million, Vice President earning N1.010million, Minister earning over N650 thousands, Senate President earning over N724 thousands, Deputy Senate President earning over N673 thousands, Senator earning over N1m, Speaker earning over N412 thousands, Deputy Speaker earning over N381, Members of House of Representatives earning over 792 thousands, State Governor, Local Government Chairman earning over N295 thousands naira are liable to pay higher aggregate as tax than common civil servant whose monthly minimum pay is N18, 000.

The system will not only control individual spending behaviour, but also guarantee their protection during recession since they will fall into lower income bracket when their income drops.

The ongoing emphasis on taxation imposed at all levels will mark a new outlook for National Income diversification and discourage mono-economic practice in the country. For instance, taxes provide the most important revenue source for the Government of the People’s Republic of China. As the most important source of fiscal revenue, tax is a key economic player of macro-economic regulation, and greatly affects China’s economic and social development.

Just as the progressive tax is used in advanced economies, Nigeria can use its new tax regime as a tool for economic stimulation and development. The United States government for example, has a number of tools available to influence the economy and secure the well being of its citizens. Fiscal policy allows the government to utilize spending and tax revenue on projects the government chooses to support.

These actions of the government to achieve economic goals are enacted through legislation which has marked the initial action taken by the FIRS while proposing the new tax system. Also, the US government has used economic stimulus legislation to support those affected by the events of September 11, 2001, and more recently, to support the financial and automotive industries; which Nigeria can exploit towards the resuscitation of its socio-economic capacity.

In low economy situation, the government can take positive action through economic stimulus bills. These bills or legislation specify the allocation of funds to specific areas of need. These areas could be general in scope and their recovery beneficial to the majority of the population. They could also be targeted or specific, as in natural disaster relief without seeking for much external grants or debts.

Progressive taxation is often considered as an overall system since tax codes have many interdependent variables. For example, progressive income tax in Australia is the most important revenue stream within the Australian taxation system. It is levied upon three sources of income; individual taxpayers, business income and capital gains. These account for 66% of federal government revenue and 57% of total revenue across the three tiers of government.

Besides, the new development will help to curb illegal manipulations surrounding the system to as far as grassroots level; this is because the local government area councils power regarding tax collection has been ceded to the state government. This will primarily enhance central co-ordination, reduce cost of tax administration collection and eliminate multiple tax burdens on the people.

However, for the new tax regime to achieve its main objectives, the Joint Tax Board must ensure competence, transparency, fairness and justice in the collection and administration of tax in the states. This can be achieved by giving administrative powers to tax authorities in the States with the provision of statutory qualifications for appointment as chairman and members of state Boards of Internal Revenue and provisions of basis for funding through the retention of a percentage of tax collected.

Abubakar Jimoh is a member of NYSC at Revenue Mobilisation Allocation & Fiscal Commission (RMAFC), Abuja. abujimohoh01@yahoo.com

Filed under: Economy, , , , , ,

PEACE-BUILDING TOWARDS CONFLICT RESOLUTIONS

BY: ABUBAKAR JIMOH

As a serving member of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) with great interest in the Disaster Risks Reduction (DRR) campaigns, I received an invitation to attend a 2-Day Seminar organized by the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) in collaboration with the Institute of Peace and Conflict Resolution (IPCR) which was held in Lafia, Nasarawa State. The workshop was on Peace Building and Conflict Management for sustainable development in Nigeria, with a theme “Response to Violence Conflict and Disasters”.

At the event which had in attendance major stakeholders in disaster management, many factors were suggested to have resulted to crises in Nigeria over the years. For instance, the Director General of NEMA, , Alhaji Muhammad Sani-Sidi attributed insecurity and violent conflicts confronting the nation to socio-economic struggles, drought and desertification, massive urbanization, landslides, weak traditional and socio-political institutions. He also blamed ignorance, intolerance among various groups and communities, unequal distribution of resources among others.

From the outset, participants at the workshop which included traditional rulers, youths, labour groups, community leaders and members of security forces, realised that conflicts and disasters share common links because disasters cause conditions which weaken state and lead to conflicts. They identified the current state of conflicts and insecurity as having roots in Nigeria’s history, social exclusion, diversity, growing poverty rate, developmental and governance challenges. Meanwhile as some of the participants noted the inevitability of conflict and disaster, the resource persons sensitized participants to be committed to conflict and disaster management as peace is possible and conflict and disaster are preventable and manageable.

Interestingly stakeholders, especially from Plateau, Plateau and Nasarawa and others whose states have witnessed intense communal clashes expressed their willingness and commitment to collaborate and synergize for conflict, disaster and security management.

Nigeria is presently confronted with cases of insecurity and violent conflicts that continue to challenge the country’s democracy, stunting economic growth and development. These deadly conflicts have decreased the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), affected social cohesion, the standard of education, increased religious intolerance, weakened traditional and religious values, and are serious threats to the national quest for stable democracy. This situation is not unconnected with the disintegration of our value system, especially among the youth who are always manipulated by elites for selfish interests. The proliferation of small arms and light weapons; the transnationalization of terrorism; globalization; unequal distribution of resources are issues that have been traditionally identified with conflicts. However, the rise in natural and man-induced disasters have further exacerbated the state of insecurity and violent conflicts in Nigeria.

Towards the end the participant at the peace-building workshop agreed on the need for a broad based and people driven approach to security management as well as involving traditional and community institutions in conflict and disaster management initiatives at all levels.

Issues bordering on unemployment rate in the country were also discussed extensively as Nigerian youths are susceptible to violent conflicts and insecurity because of idleness, illiteracy and joblessness. In this case, the participants recommended knowledge, skills transfer, and local technical support to promote self-help skills are as essential principles toward peace building. The engagement of youth through skill and technical capacity building programmes were advocated to prepare and diversify their skills for employment. The fight against corruption is also recommended to be intensified in order to combat the endemic institutional corruption in the country while calling on security operatives to abide by the rule of engagements and professions in conflicts situations.

It was unanimously agreed that there is the need to improve collaboration among all stakeholders to build trust, synergy and confidence in disaster management in Nigeria, while the Nigerian business sector must put in resources to peace making, peace building programs in collaboration with the government.
In an effort to reduce remour mongering and reckless speculations that were noted for some crises, the stakeholders at the forum called on the relevant authorities to build the capacity of Nigerians in ICT and in the application of social media networking in conflict and disaster early warning response, and in confronting misinformation that exacerbates conflicts and insecurity.

As Nigerians, we are all stakeholders in disaster management and peace-building efforts. Therefore we have the responsibility to make peace a reality and be conflict managers and not conflict generators.
The workshop was able to achieve its aims and objectives of reviewing strategies for violent conflict and disaster responsiveness in Nigeria; it is only hope that the orgnisers NEMA and IPCR would replicate the same in other geopolitical zones, not only as talkshop but to follow-up on the recommendations.

Abubakar Jimoh
abujimoh01@yahoo.com

Filed under: Disaster Management, , , , ,

Still on Agricultural Potentials from Oil Revenue

BY: ABUBAKAR JIMOH

Prior to the discovery of crude oil at Oloibiri Oilfield in Niger Delta in 1956, Nigeria had showed a remarkable record as one of the major exporters of agricultural produce across African continent. The nation witnessed a new era of socio-economic tardiness after the take-off of oil exportation in 1960s.

The over-reliance on income from oil sector has become a factor backpedalling states’ economic and financial capacity as their only source for income mainly from the monthly federation account allocation. Not attention is paid for Internally Generated Revenue through aggressive diversification despite the vast agricultural endowments in their respective states.

Advanced economies such as France, Germany, Italy, China, Indonesia, United Kingdom, Brazil and Canada had at the outset embraced agro-economic diversification through which they have improved their national income generation from cash crops. Most states in those countries saddled themselves with responsibility for productions of specific agricultural commodities from which the governments derived revenue for states’ developmental finance.

Nigeria from its humble beginning, especially at the Independence, had such efficient measures, as every region or state identified with particular agricultural outputs such as Alien Cotton in the South, rice and wheat cultivation in some northern states. There were also extensive production of export crops such cocoa, palm oil, groundnut, cassava, maize, rubber, yam, beans, tomatoes, vegetables, cashew and development of agricultural implementations as well as designing farm buildings using the fertile landscape from which the states derived larger Internally Generated Revenue (IGR) to finance their capital and recurrent votes.

Considering these, most states in Nigeria such as Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Edo, Cross River, Anambra, Enugu, Imo, Abia, Ekiti, Akwa-Ibom, Delta and Rivers having profuse oil palms can liaise with their respective State Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Mines and Agriculture (SCCIMA) on all matters relating to agricultural purposes; to monitor the performance of their cash crops, receive suggestion where necessary, and organize seminars and Trade Missions to maximize, modernize and export their products. Similar institutions exist in Indonesia and Malaysia known as Palm Oil Chambers that assist their farers on the use of sophisticated agricultural equipment for enhancing and improving the oil quality and fertility. Malaysia has so created over 500, 000 jobs with over 150 countries as its major markets in 2009.

In Cassava production, Ogun, Kwara, Cross River, Nasarawa, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Lagos, Osun states can collaborate with the British American Tobacco Nigeria Foundation (BATNF) on its ongoing siting of a cassava processing cottage industry in the country, and explore the use of new facility like ultra modern cassava processing equipment to reduce the hardship cassava processors have been going through. This will help them to attain technical skill, improve, modernize and standardize their productive capacities. Just as Thailand for instance, has made considerable advance in modernizing its starch industries using technologically advanced industrial plants such as Belt conveyer, chipper machine, screw pump, rotary filter, starch hydro-cyclone; and proficiently transformed cassava into various finished goods serving as raw material for different industrial sectors such as bakery, animal feeds, paper, textile, wood furniture industries across the globe.

Maize is another very vital cash crop in the world agro-Industrial market. Indeed, Nigeria Investment Opportunity (2011) observed that the crop constitutes about 60% of industrial raw materials confirmed useful mostly in the production of filler for plastics, packing materials, insulating materials, adhesives, dyes, insecticides, pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. The United States Grains Councils (2010) observed that United States, China and Brazil are well known key players in the world corn market with 41%, 19.4% and 6.9% of the world production respectively.

There is a need for well-funded Agricultural Research and Development in the states where governments of such maize growing states like Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Kano, Yobe, Jigawa, Gombe, Taraba, Plateau, Sokoto, Kebbi, Katsina, Nasarawa, Niger and Zamfara can bring their famers together under the auspices of the Maize Association of Nigeria for training on the utilization of the latest technologies for massive production of maize to meet both local and international industrial demands.

Furthermore, states like Ondo, Osun, Kwara, and Kogi, who are endowed with copious hardwood species like are Iroko, mahogany, Obeche and sapele woods can strengthen their productive and technological capacities and put the local sawmilling industries in workable condition. A study conducted in 1993 by the General Wood and Veneer Consultant Ltd, Canada in partnership with the Federal Department of Forestry disclosed that Nigeria has witnessed a significant reduction in number of sawmills in the country; and the existence ones operate at low capacity. For instance, the Canadian Encyclopedia (2011) confirmed that forestry production constituted about about 15.2% of Canada’s Gross Domestic Export in 1994; while currently producing 22% of the world forestry exports. The economy has achieved this, not only through its technical capacity in the sector, but also government collaboration and support for the industrial associations by building up a sufficient forestry production team for the world market.

Apart from these, the states in riverine areas like Bayelsa, Rivers, Delta, Lagos, and Abia can boost their IGR by diversify towards Fishery production, rice cultivation, and vegetable plantations. According to an Oceanographer, Craig Emerson (1999) for over 3,000 years, China has continued to dominate the world fishery production with 83% of the world’s aquaculture output from which it has largely multiplied its annual Gross Domestic Income. It has achieved this height so far using hatchery technologies and integrated farming systems. These methods have been used in Bangladesh, Burma, India, Indonesia, Iran, Korea and Philippines.

Abubakar Jimoh
abujimoh01@yahoo.com

Filed under: Economy, , ,